Hypothalamus , region of the brain lying below the thalamus and making up the floor of the third cerebral ventricle. The hypothalamus is an integral part of the brain. It is a small cone-shaped structure that projects downward from the brain, ending in the pituitary infundibular stalk, a tubular connection to the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus contains a control centre for many functions of the autonomic nervous system , and it has effects on the endocrine system because of its complex interaction with the pituitary gland. The hypothalamus and pituitary gland are connected by both nervous and chemical pathways.
Hypothalamus - Wikipedia
This complex secretes several hormones that directly produce responses in target tissues, as well as hormones that regulate the synthesis and secretion of hormones of other glands. In addition, the hypothalamus—pituitary complex coordinates the messages of the endocrine and nervous systems. In many cases, a stimulus received by the nervous system must pass through the hypothalamus—pituitary complex to be translated into hormones that can initiate a response. The hypothalamus is a structure of the diencephalon of the brain located anterior and inferior to the thalamus Figure 1. It has both neural and endocrine functions, producing and secreting many hormones. In addition, the hypothalamus is anatomically and functionally related to the pituitary gland or hypophysis , a bean-sized organ suspended from it by a stem called the infundibulum or pituitary stalk.
About the size of a pearl, the hypothalamus directs a multitude of important functions in the body. Located in the diencephalon region of the forebrain , the hypothalamus is the control center for many autonomic functions of the peripheral nervous system. Connections with structures of the endocrine and nervous systems enable the hypothalamus to play a vital role in maintaining homeostasis. Homeostasis is the process of maintaining bodily equilibrium by monitoring and adjusting physiological processes.
The management of erectile dysfunction ED has changed dramatically in recent years, as advances in molecular biology have given us a better understanding of the erectile process as well as the pathophysiology of erectile disorders. Until relatively recently, however, most research in ED focused on peripheral neurophysiology and on the local tissues of the penis, leading to the development of highly effective treatments such as penile injections and sildenafil. There has, however, been growing interest in the role of the central nervous system CNS in the control of erectile function, and researchers have begun to develop medications that target these central mechanisms.